ENGLAND GENEALOGY EXPRESS
A Part of Genealogy
Cornwall County, England
History & Genealogy
is a county in South West England in the
United Kingdom. The county is bordered
to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to
the south by the English channel, and to the
east by the county of Devon, over the River
Tamar which forms most of the border between
them. Cornwall forms the westernmost
part of the South West Peninsula of the
island of Great Britain. The furthest
southwestern point of the island is Land's
End; the southernmost point is Lizard Point.
Cornwall has a population of 556,000 and
covers an area of 3,563 km2 (1,376 sq mi).
The county has been administered since 2009
by the unitary authority, Cornwall Council.
The ceremonial county of Cornwall also
includes the Isles of Scilly, which are
administered separately. The
administrative centre of Cornwall, and its
only city, is Truro.
Cornwall is the homeland of the Cornish people and the
cultural and ethnic origin of the Cornish
diaspora. It retains a distinct cultural
identity that reflects its unique history,
and is recognised as one of the Celtic
nations with a rich cultural heritage.
It was formerly a Brythonic kingdom and
subsequently a royal duchy. The Cornish
nationalist movement contests the present
constitutional status of Cornwall and seeks
greater autonomy within the United Kingdom
in the form of a devolved legislative
Cornish Assembly and powers similar to those
in Wales and Scotland. In 2014,
Cornish people were granted minority status
under the European Framework Convention for
the Protection of National Minorities,
giving Cornish people recognition as a
distinct ethnic group.
First inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic
periods, Cornwall continued to be occupied
by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples,
and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with
strong trade and cultural links to Wales and
Brittany. Mining in Cornwall and Devon in
the south west of England began in the early
Few Roman remains have been found in Cornwall and there
is little evidence that the Romans settled
or had much military presence
there. After the collapse
of the Roman Empire, Cornwall was ruled by
chieftains of the Cornovii which may have
included semi-historical or legendary
figures such as King Mark of Cornwall and
King Arthur, evidenced by folklore
traditions derived from the Historia Regum
Britanniae. The Cornovii division of the
Dumnonii tribe were separated from the
Brythons of Wales after the Battle of
Deorham and often came into conflict with
the expanding kingdom of Wessex. King
Athelstan in AD 936 set the boundary between
English and Cornish at the high water mark
of the eastern bank of the River Tamar.
From the early Middle Ages, language and
culture were shared by Brythons trading
across both sides of the Channel, resulting
in the corresponding high medieval Breton
kingdoms of Domnonée and Cornouaille and the
Celtic Christianity common to both areas.
Historically Tin mining in Britain was important in the
Cornish economy, becoming increasingly
significant during the High Middle Ages and
expanding greatly during the 19th century
when rich copper mines were also in
production. In the mid-19th century,
however, the tin and copper mines entered a
period of decline. Subsequently, china clay
extraction became more important and metal
mining had virtually ended by the 1990s.
Traditionally, fishing (particularly of
pilchards) and agriculture (notably dairy
products and vegetables) were the other
important sectors of the economy. Railways
led to a growth of tourism in the 20th
century; however, Cornwall's economy
struggled after the decline of the mining
and fishing industries.
Cornwall is noted for its geology and coastal scenery.
A large part of the Cornubian batholith is
within Cornwall. The north coast has many
cliffs where exposed geological formations
are studied. The area is noted for its wild
moorland landscapes, its long and varied
coastline, its attractive villages, its many
place-names derived from the Cornish
language, and its very mild climate.
Extensive stretches of Cornwall's coastline,
and Bodmin Moor, are protected as an Area of
Outstanding Natural Beauty.
(information found at wikipedia.com)