ILLINOIS GENEALOGY EXPRESS


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Vermilion County, Illinois

HISTORY
OF
VERMILION COUNTY, ILLINOIS,
TOGETHER WITH
HISTORIC NOTES ON THE NORTHWEST,
GLEANED FROM EARLY AUTHORS, OLD MAPS AND MANUSCRIPTS,
PRIVATE AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE AND OTHER
AUTHENTIC THOUGH, FOR THE MOST PART,
OUT-OF-THE-WAY SOURCES.
BY H. W. BECKWITH
OF THE DANVILLE BAR:  CORRESPONDING MEMBERS OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETIES OF
WISCONSIN AND CHICAGO

WITH MAP AND ILLUSTRATIONS
CHICAGO:
H. H. HILL AND COMPANY, PUBLISHERS,
1879

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE   PAGE
CHAPTER I. - Topography
- The drainage of the Lakes and the Mississippi, and the Indian and French names by which they were severally called.
10
CHAPTER II. - Drainage of the Illinois and Wabash
- Their tributary streams
- The portages connecting the drainage to the Atlantic with that of the Gulf
17
CHAPTER III. - The ancient Maumee Valley
- Geological features
- Formerly Lakes Michigan and Superior drained into the Illinois, and Lakes Huron and Erie into the Wabash
- The portage of the Wabash and the Kankakee
21
CHAPTER IV. - The rainfall -
- It has increased, although the rivers seem to have diminished, since the settlement of the Northwest
- Cultivation of the soil tends to equalize rainfall, and prevent the recurrence of drouths and floods
26
CHAPTER V. - Origin of the prairies
- Their former extent
- Gradual encroachment of the forest
- Prairie fires
- Aboriginal names of the prairies, and the Indians who lived exclusively upon them
29
CHAPTER VI. - Early French discoveries
- Jaques Cartier ascends the St. Lawrence in 1535
- Samuel Champlain founds Quebec in 1608
- In 1642 Montreal is established
- Influence of Quebec and Montreal upon the Northwest continues until subsequent to the war of 1812
- Early explorations of the French missionaries along the shore of Lake Superior
- They first learn of the Mississippi
- Father Marquette desires to explore it
- The French government determine on it exploration
- Theories as to whether the Mississippi emptied into the Sea of California, the Gulf of Mexico, or the Atlantic
- Joliet and Marquette selected to solve the problem
- Spanish discoveries of the lower Mississippi in 1525
37
CHAPTER VII. - Joliet and Marquette's Voyage
- They leave Mackinaw May 17, 1673
- They proceed, by way of Green Bay and the Wisconsin, as far as the mouth of the Arkansas
- Return by way of Illinois and Chicago Creek
- Father Marquette's Journal, descriptive of the journey and the country through which they traveled.
- BIOGRAPHICAL Sketches of Marquette and Joliet
43
CHAPTER VIII. - La Salle's Voyage
- Biographical sketch of La Salle
- His concessions and titles of nobility
- Preparations for his explorations
- Sketch of Father Hennepin and the merit of his writings
- La Salle reaches the Niagara River in December, 1678, builds the ship Griffin and proceeds up Lake Erie, and reaches Mackinaw in August, 1679.
54
CHAPTER IX. - La Salle's Voyage continued
- Mackinaw the headquarters of the Indian trade
- The Griffin starts back to Niagara River with a cargo of furs, and is lost upon the lake
- La Salle resumes his voyage in birch canoes, south along the west shore of Lake Michigan, and around its southern extremity to the mouth of the St. Joseph, where he erects Fort Miamis
63
CHAPTER X. - The several rivers called the Miamis
- La Salle's route down the Illinois
- The Des Plaines
- The Illinois
- "Fort Crecoeur"
- La Salle goes back to Canada
- Destruction of his forts by deserters
- His return to Fort Miamis, and the successful prosecution of his exploration to the mouth of the Mississippi
-  The whole valley of the great river taken possession of in the name of the King of France
72
CHAPTER XI. - Death of La Salle, in attempting to establish a colony near the mouth of the Mississippi
-
Chicago Creek
- The origin of the name
- Fort St. Louis built by Tonti at Starved Rock
- La Salle assassinated and his colony destroyed
- Joutel, with other survivors, return by way of the Illinois
- Second attempt of France, under Mons. Iberville, in 1699, to establish settlements on the Gulf
- Cession of all Louisiana to M. Crozat
- Crozat's deed from the King
- The Western Company
- Law's scheme of inflation and its consequences
- New Orleans founded in 1718
- Fort Chartes erected, and its appearance
87
CHAPTER XII. - Surrender of Louisiana to the French Crown in 1731
- Early routes by way of the Kankakee, Chicago Creek, the Ohio, the Maumee and Wabash described
- The Maumee and Wabash, and the number and origin of their several names
- Indian villages
96
CHAPTER XIII. - Aboriginal inhabitants
- The several Illinois tribes.
- Of the name Illinois, and its origin
- The Kaskaskias, Cahokias, Tamaroas, Peorias adn Metchigamis, subdivisions of the Illinois Confederacy
- First mentioned by the Jesuit missionaries in 1655
- Their habits and morals
- Their country and villages
- Their wars with the Iroquois and other tribes
- The tradition concerning the Iroquis River
- Their decline and removal westward of the Missouri
105
CHAPTER XIV - The Miamis
- The Miami, Piankeshaw and Wea bands
- They are kindred to the Illinois, originally from the west of the Mississippi
- Their superiority and their military disposition
- Their subdivisions and various names
- Their trade and difficulties with the French and the English
- Their migrations
- They are upon the Maumee and Wabash
- Their Villages
- From their position between the French and English they suffer at the hands of both
- They defeat the Iroquois
- They trade with the English, and incur the anger of the French
- Their bravery
- Their decline
- Destructive effects of intemperance
- Cession of their lands in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio
- Their removal westward and present condition
119
CHAPTER XV - The Pottawatomies
- They and the Ottawas and Ojibbeways one people
- Originally from the north and east of Lake Huron
- Their migrations by way of Mackinaw to the country west of Lake Michigan, and thence south and eastward
- Their games
- Origin of the name Pottawatomie
- Allies of the French
- Occupy a portion of the country of the Miamis along the Wabash
- Their villages
- At peace with the United States after the war of 1812
- Cede their lands
- Their exodus from the Wabash, the Kankakee and Wabash
- Their condition in Kansas
- Their progress toward civilization
137
CHAPTER XVI - The Kickapoos and Mascoutins reside about Saginaw Bay in 1612; on Fox River, Wisconsin, in 1670
-
Their reception of the Catholic fathers
- Not inclined to their teachings
- They kill one missionary and retain another in captivity
- On the Maumee in 1712
- In southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois
- Migrate to the Wabash
- Derivation of the name Mascoutin
- Dwellers of the prairie
- Identity of the Kickapoos with the Mascoutins
- Their destruction at the siege of Detroit
- They were always enemies of the French, English and Americans
- Nearly destroy the Illinois and Piankeshaws, and occupy their country
- Join Tecumseh in a body
- They, with the Winnebagoes, attack Fort Harrison
- Pa-koi-shee-can's account of the engagement
- Ka-en-ne-kuck becomes a religious teacher
- The wild bands make trouble on the Texas border
- Their country between the Illinois and Wabash
- Their resemblance to the Sac and Fox Indians
 
CHAPTER XVII - The Shawnees and Delawares
- Originally east of the Alleghany Mountains
- Are subdued and driven out by the Iroquois
- Marquette finds the Shawnees on the Tennessee in 1673
- At one time in Florida
- In 1744 they are in Ohio
- They war on the American settlements
- Their villages on the Big and Little Miamis, the St. Mary's, the Au Glaize, Maumee and Wabash
- The Delawares
- Made women of by the Iroquois
- Their country on White River, Indiana, and eastward defined
- Become friendly to the United States after Wayne's victory at Maumee Rapids, in 1794
- They, with the Shawnees, sent west of the Mississippi
- They furnish soldiers in the war for the Union
- Adopting ways of the white people
170
CHAPTER XVIII - The Indians
- Their implements, utensils, fortifications, mounds, manners and customs
180
CHAPTER XIX - Stone implements used by the Indians before they came in contact with the Europeans
-
Illustrations of various kinds of stone implements, and suggestions as to their probable uses
195
CHAPTER XX - The war of the fur trade
- Former abundance of wild animals and water-fowl in the Northwest
- the buffalo; their range, their numbers, and final disappearance
- Value of the fur trade; its importance to Canada
- The coureurs di bois; their food and peculiarities
- Goods for Indian trace
- The distant parts to which the fur trade was carried, and the manner in which it was conducted
- Competition between French and English for control of the fur trade
- It results in broils
- French traders killed on the Vermilion
- The French and Indians attack Fort Pickawillany
- War
208
CHAPTER XXI - The war for the empire
- English claims to the Northwest
- Deeds from the Iroquois to a large part of the country
- Military expeditions of Major Grant, Mons. Aubry and M. de Ligneris
- Aubry attempts to retake Fort Du Quesne
- His expedition up the Wabash
- Goes to the relief of Fort Niagara
- Is defeated by Sir William Johnson
- The fall of Quebec and Montreal
- Surrender of the Northwest to Great Britain
- The territory west of the Mississippi ceded to Spain.
224
CHAPTER XXII - Pontiac's war to recover the country from the English
- The siege of Detroit
- The fall of Mackinaw, Saint Joseph, Miamis and Ouiatanon
- Relief of Detroit
- Pontiac's confederacy falls to pieces
- Croghan sent west to recover possession of the country from the Indians
- Is captured and carried to Fort Ouiatanon
- The county turned over to the English
- Pontiac's death
234
CHAPTER XIII - Gen. Clark's conquest of the "Illinois"
- The Revolutionary war
- Indian depredations upon the settlements of Kentucky
- The savages are supplied with arms and ammunition from the English posts at Detroit, Vincennes and Kaskaskia
- Gen. Clark applies to Gov. Henry, of Virginia, for aid in an enterprise to capture Kaskaskia and Vincennes
- Sketch of Gen. Clark
- His manuscript memoir of his march to the Illinois
- He captures Kaskaskia
- The surrender of Vincennes
- He treats with the Indians, who agree to quit their war fare on the Big Knife
- Gov. Hamilton, of Detroit, re-captures Vincennes
- Clark's march to Vincennes
- He re-takes Vincennes, and makes the English forces prisoners of war
- Capt. Helm surprises a convoy of English boats at the mouth of the Vermilion River
- Organization of the northwest territory into Illinois county of Virginia
- Clark holds the Northwest until the conclusion of the revolutionary war.  For this reason only it became a part of the United States
245
CHAPTER XXIV - Illinois county established
- The northwest territory
- The ordinance of 1787
- A bill of rights
- Free-school system
- Provisions for states
- Old boundaries between Canada and Louisiana
- Indian wars
- The Indian country on the Wabash and Maumee ravaged
- England refuses to surrender military posts within the northwest territory
- The first treaty between the United States and the Wabash tribes, at Vincennes, in1792
- The great white wampum belt of peace, with medal suspended, delivered by Gen. Putman
- The medal, and where afterward found
- The British medal
- St. Clair's defeat
- Futile efforts to obtain peace
- Wayne marches from Greenville to the Maumee and gains a great victory over the confederate tribes
- Treaty of Greenville
- Wayne's death
260
CHAPTER XXV - The northwest territory divided
- Wm. H. Harrison appointed governor of the Indiana territory
- Its subdivision into counties
- BIOGRAPHICAL sketch of Gov. Harrison
- Tecumseh and his brother, the Prophet.
- They organize a scheme to drive the white settlers beyond the Ohio
- Illinois Territory formed -
- Its subdivision into the counties of Randolph and St. Clair
- Development of Tecumseh's plans.
- The Tippecanoe campaign
- Line of Harrison's march
- Official account of the battle
- Incidents
- War of 1812
- A large part of the Northwest in the hands of the English and Indians
- Fall of Fort Dearborn
- Siege of Forts Wayne and Harrison
- Gen. Taylor's report of the attack on Fort Harrison
- The naval engagement on Lake Erie
- The battle of the Thames
- Tecumseh had "fought it out" with Gen. Harrison
- The north recovered by Gen. Harrison
- The old boundaries restored
- Peace concluded
- Advance of population
- Conclusion
278


COUNTY HISTORY *

  History of Danville Township - not started 305
  BIOGRAPHICAL 367
  History of Georgetown Township - started 2/17/2015 497
  BIOGRAPHICAL 526
  History of Elwood Township - started 2/17/2015 560
  BIOGRAPHICAL 592
  History of Catlin Township - started 2/17/2015 609
  BIOGRAPHICAL 628
  History of Ross Township - FINISHED 2/17/2015 651
  BIOGRAPHICAL 670
  History of Grant Township - not started 701
  BIOGRAPHICAL 719
  History of Carroll Township - not started 761
  BIOGRAPHICAL 784
  History of Middle Fork Township - not started 792
  BIOGRAPHICAL 814
  History of Oakwood Township - started 2/17/2015 834
  BIOGRAPHICAL 857

* ERRATA. - On account of a want of space, in consequence of more matter than the publishers had provided for, the County History is duplicated in pages with the first-seventy-two pages of Township History.
     On page 620, line 27, instead of Dan, read H. W.
 
  History of Blount Township - not started 874
  BIOGRAPHICAL 894
  History of Pilot Township - not started 904
  BIOGRAPHICAL 914
  History of Newell Township - not started 926
  BIOGRAPHICAL 950
  History of Vance Township - not started 969
  BIOGRAPHICAL 983
  History of Butler Township - not started 1000
  BIOGRAPHICAL 1024
  BUSINESS DIRECTORY 1035


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  Map Illustrating French and Indian War Frontispiece
  Indian Implements 197-207
  Buffalo 209
  Gen. George Rogers Clarke 245
  Washington Medal 270
  British Medal 273
  Gen. W. H. Harrison 289
  The Prophet 282
  Fort Harrison in 1812 288
  Plan of Battle of Tippecanoe 291
  Map of Vermilion County 305
  Joseph Barron 305
  City Mills, Danville 311
  Amber Mills, Danville 315
  High School 329
  County Court House 330
  Ellsworth Coal Shaft 337
  Coffeen & Pollock's Store 352
  Lincoln Opera House 379
  Danville Planing Mill 444
  Whitehill's Carriage Shops 466
  Hoopeston Public School 715
  McFerron's Bank Building 718
  Clark's Hall 745
  Pioneer Cabin 876


LIST OF PORTRAITS

Anderson, L. W. 737
Coffeen, H. A. 497
Daniel, A. C. 337
Dickson, David 785
Geddings, William 673
Harmon, O. F. 417
Harrison, William C. 865
Kyger, Johnm 545
Jones, George Wheeler 497
Leverich, J. G. 817
Leverich, R. T. 384
Moore, William I. 129
Peters, J. 977
Pollock, Alexander 625
Tincher, John L. 376
Sheets, William 513

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